Recent Blog Posts
By: Dr. Maria Smith, HCS-OSU
From Ashtabula to Cincinnati, the growing season is here. Usually, budbreak is a stratified process over several weeks from the south to the north, but not this year. An unusually warm spring has heralded in the start of the season in an uncanny uniform fashion and without regards to cultivar or geographical region (Fig 1). This year’s budbreak pattern, which is anywhere from days to weeks ahead of historical averages, can largely be attributed to the abnormally warm, dry conditions that increase in intensity from south to north (Fig 2).
Fig 1. Phenology among several Vinifera and hybrid cultivars at Wooster, Unit 2, Apr 16, 2021 (Photo credit: Diane Kinney).
Fig 2. Temperature (left) and precipitation (right) deviation from the long-term average from March 17 through April 15, 2021 (figures from https://climate.osu.edu)
Despite the recent pleasantly warm weather, Ohio unfortunately remains at risk for below freezing conditions for another 2 to 4 weeks (Fig 3). This week will be a stark reminder of that, as both below freezing temperatures and the chance of snow accumulation are forecasted courtesy of a cold front moving across the state later this week (Fig 4).
Fig 3. Median date of last 32°F for Ohio (figure from www.mrcc.illinois.edu)
Fig 4. Forecast and minimum temperature maps for the week of Apr 19, 2021. (figures from NOAA, www.weather.gov)
Given the upcoming forecasts, let's review some lessons from the 2020 season freezes
Stay calm and optimistic!
Just because temperatures reach < 32°F does not automatically mean that all the shoots will die. Grapes are resilient when it comes to coping with environmental stress, and spring freezes are no exception. The good news over the past few days is that cooler temperatures have slowed growth and development of the vines. This is crucial since we know that buds/shoots that are less advanced can withstand colder temperatures than those which are more developed (Table 1). Additionally, grapes are comprised of compound buds, so that if there is loss of the primary shoots, secondary and tertiary shoots can emerge to resume growth. Although these secondary and tertiary shoots are less fruitful than primary shoots and are developmentally delayed, many common French American and cold-hardy hybrids grown in Ohio have highly fruitful secondary shoots that can temper potential yield losses.
Table 1. Estimated critical temperatures for Pinot noir at different stages of bud/shoot development (Gardea, 1987)
Review the tools for successfully “weathering” this week’s freeze
One of the first questions that come up when a spring freeze event approaches is “What can I do to protect the vines?”. Once vines have reached budbreak, the options for protection are limited, and the efficacy of the options is highly dependent upon the type of freeze event (Table 2). For many small vineyards, the best options are those that need to be considered and used in advanced of any predicted spring freeze events.
Table 2: Characteristics of radiation vs advective freeze events. Table from https://www.canr.msu.edu/news/what_is_the_difference_between_a_frost_and_a_freeze
Winds less than 5 MPH
Winds higher that 5 MPH
May be cloudy
Cold air mass 30 to 200 feet thick
Cold air mass 450 to 3,000 feet thick
Cold air in the low spots
White or black frost damage
Easier to protect
Difficult to protect
Below is a republishing of methods that can also be found from our OGEN article from APRIL 2020 - Spring Freeze Issue. Drs. Imed Dami and Michela Centinari (PSU) also discussed these methods in a recent March webinar. Click here to view the presentation.
Methods prior to frost event
- Delayed pruning: similar to 2020, vines have more advanced phenology than normal and buds are pushing earlier as a result of above average temepratures. Delayed pruning helps with delaying budbreak.
- Double-pruning: the rationale is similar to delayed pruning. With 1st pruning, you leave extra buds per vine. Due to apical dominance, apical buds push earlier than basal buds. If frost occurs, basal buds (which are delayed in growing) will be less likely to be injured. With the 2nd pruning, apical shoots (injured or not) will be pruned by retaining a final bud count per vine. Note: the 2nd pruning should occur when apical shoots are less than 2" in total growth to avoid potential issues with fruitless shoots developing from the basal buds regardless if you are past the last date of freeze.
- Row middle and cover crop: bare ground in row middles provide more heat to keep vines warm during a frost event. Mowed grass cover crop will also do the same. So, it is crucial that you mowed your grass as short as possible for added frost protection.
- Products that delay budbreak: Some products can be effective, but it is too late to apply now if you have not already done so. Please view the recorded webinar presentation with Dr. Imed Dami (link) for an overview of the available budbreak delay products.
- KDL (0-0-24) fertilizer: Even though growers would like to use this product, research has shown that KDL does not protect shoots against frost injury once vines resume growth. Therefore, it is not recommended. Dr. Smith researched this product and can be contacted directly for more information.
- Copper: has been shown to protect young shoots against frost injury by killing ice forming bacteria present on vine foliage. You may start spraying as soon as budbreak and repeat every 5-7 days (washes off easily and must be reapplied after an inch or more of rain) until you’re out of the frost threat period (2 – 3 weeks) in your vineyard. Read the label for the application rate. In CA, 0.75 actual copper per acre was used. Read the label to avoid plant injury. To avoid injury, apply when not cold or wet (slow drying) and use formulation with lime.
- More info about copper is in the Midwest fruit pest management guide (p 90-91): https://ag.purdue.edu/hla/Hort/Pages/sfg_sprayguide.aspx. Sensitive varieties are listed on p. 94-95 of the same guide.
Methods during a frost event
- Wind machines: wind machines, although expensive, are effective against radiative spring frost events (clear, cold nights with temperature inversions).
- Overhead irrigation (sprinklers): None of our growers in OH has this system. Having said that, DO NOT SPRAY YOUR VINES WITH WATER USING A SPRAYER. You will cause more damage than doing nothing.
- Heaters: same as above; not a common method in Ohio. When temperature inversion exists, heaters are effective alone and best with wind machines. However, cost of fuel and pollution are main limitations.
Although there are still a couple of days until the predicted freeze event, it is a good idea to also review the recommendations for managing the vineyard if the forecasted freeze causes shoot injury. Those recommendations can be found in the APRIL 2020 OGEN.
Elizabeth Y. Long, Horticultural Entomologist, Purdue University
Adjunct Horticultural Entomologist, The Ohio State University
A natural wonder will occur in 15 states this year: the emergence of the Brood X, 17-year periodical cicadas! Also known as “17-year or 13-year locusts” the last mass emergence of these insects occurred in 2004. Now, 17 years later, the immature cicadas will emerge from the ground, molt one last time to gain wings, and “sing” loudly to find mates and lay eggs in trees and woody shrubs.
Periodical cicadas: where and when?
Many of you likely remember when the Brood V, 17-year periodical cicadas emerged in Ohio in 2016 (Fig. 1, purple shading on map). That emergence occurred in key grape-growing counties in northeastern Ohio. However in 2021, activity of the Brood X, 17-year cicadas will be heaviest in west-central and south-west Ohio (Fig. 1, yellow shading on map), with emergence taking place late May through June.
Figure 1. Active periodical cicada broods of the United States. Yellow-colored counties indicate areas where 17-year cicadas are predicted to emerge in 2021. Image credit: AM Liebhold, www.fs.fed.us
You will see two distinct life stages of these charismatic insects: the nymphs and the adults.
Although there is no single degree-day model to predict the emergence perfectly across regions, it’s generally agreed that when soil temperatures warm up to 65 °F or so, the nymphs will begin to emerge from the soil. The nymphs are wingless, just a bit creepy, and dark golden-brown in color (Figure 2). After emerging from the ground, nymphs crawl up tree trunks and items like patio furniture, to molt - leaving behind their cast skin (exoskeleton).
Figure 2. Periodical cicada nymph (cast ‘skin’). Photo: John Obermeyer
The adults are 1.5 to 2-inches long, with black bodies and reddish-colored legs, wing margins, and eyes (Figure 3). Newly emerged adults may appear pale or white in color until the exoskeleton has hardened and darkened (Figure 4). Adult periodical cicadas live for ~1 month, and during this time the males produce shrill “songs” to attract females using vibrating organs called tymbals - how romantic! Females cut slits into twigs of woody plants to lay eggs that hatch in 6-7 weeks. After hatching, the next generation of 17-year cicada nymphs drop to the ground and dig down into the soil, where they will remain for another 17 years feeding on sap from tree roots.
Figure 3. An adult periodical cicada on my arm
Figure 4. A newly emerged adult periodical cicada, before its exoskeleton has hardened and darkened. Photo: Jane Chandler
Why the mass emergence? This is a life history strategy to satiate predators (Figure 5, they can’t eat them all!) and maximize the chances that the majority of periodical cicadas will survive to mate and lay eggs.
Figure 5. Periodical cicadas have many predators, including chipmunks. Photo: Emily Keith
- The good news is periodical cicadas do not bite or sting people, or pets.
- The bad news is females lay eggs in 200+ woody tree species and can cause severe damage to young trees and grapevines (Figure 6).
Figure 6. Cutting/slitting egg laying damage caused by female periodical cicadas on grapevines. Photo: E. Y. Long
Apples, cherries, peaches, plums, and grapevines are at high risk, because these hosts are preferred for egg laying by female cicadas. However, any young trees and grapevines with main branches, stems, and canes between 3/16-inch and 7/16-inch in diameter are susceptible to damage and should be the main focus of protective efforts.
Egg laying physically weakens and damages branches and canes, which may turn brown, die, and break off (“flagging”). Under heavy attack, the loss of branches and canes can cause serious damage or death to young trees and grapevines. It is also possible that nymphs feeding on roots reduces vigor.
Step #1: Cultural control
- Delay new plantings in 2021, either until the emergence has ended, or next spring.
- Plan accordingly for future emergence of periodical cicadas broods in Ohio: (Table 1, below).
Table 1. When and where 17-year periodical cicadas will emerge in Ohio in the future.
Year to appear
Where they will appear
Step #2: Mechanical control (recommended for small orchards/vineyards, backyard fruit trees/grapevines, and organic production)
1. Net grapevines with mesh screening (no larger than 1/2-inch openings), when first males begin singing (before egg laying begins), to prevent females from accessing the plant to deposit eggs.
Cover grapevines and secure the netting to/near the trunk, the ground, or lower trellis wire (Figure 7). Remove after adult periodical cicada activity ends.
Figure 7. Example of netting grapevines to exclude female periodical cicadas. Photo: Wikimedia.org
Step #3: Chemical control (recommended for settings where netting is not feasible, like large/commercial vineyards)
IMPORTANT: Chemical control is not as effective as netting. While netting is applied once to exclude egg-laying females, insecticides must be applied repeatedly against “waves of cicadas” during the ~1-month activity period of adults to prevent or reduce injury to grapevines.
Insecticides are not recommended to protect mature grapevines, because these vines can tolerate egg laying damage. However, insecticide applications can reduce periodical cicada injury to young grapevines:
1. Once egg laying begins, insecticides may be applied:
- Every 3-4 days, to help prevent injury, or
- Every 7-10 days, to help reduce injury
- Soil-applied, systemic insecticides are not effective against periodical cicadas.
Scout vineyards every 2-3 days during egg laying to evaluate how well insecticide applications are protecting young grapevines.
Pyrethroid insecticides are recommended against periodical cicadas because they have fast knock down and good residual activity; however, commercial producers should beware flare-ups of spider mites when using pyrethroid insecticides like Baythroid XL (active ingredient: cyfluthrin), and Mustang Maxx (active ingredient: zeta-cypermethrin) against periodical cicadas, because they also kill beneficial, predatory mites that typically keep spider mites at bay. Pyrethroids like Danitol (active ingredient: Fenpropathrin) and Brigade (active ingredient: Bifenthrin) are unlikely to cause spider mite flare-ups when used below the maximum rate.
Commercial producers can refer to the 2021-2022 Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide for insecticide recommendations.
Homeowners can use products with active ingredients permethrin (Bonide Eight), zeta-cypermethrin (GardenTech Sevin), or gamma-cyhalothrin (Spectracide Triazicide Concentrate for Lawns and Landscapes) against periodical cicada on backyard fruit and ornamental trees and shrubs.
For your safety, always read and follow the instructions on pesticide labels.
In summary, here are some quick “take home messages:”
- 17-year cicada emergence will occur in west-central and south-west Ohio late May through June.
- Female cicadas damage twigs, branches, and canes 3/16-inch to 7/16-inch in diameter by cutting into them to lay eggs.
- If you have an orchard, vineyard, or backyard fruit trees/vines: prepare to take action when you hear the first males begin to “sing.”
- Focus protective efforts (netting, insecticide applications) on young trees and grapevines, because they are most vulnerable.
- Select and use insecticides judiciously to reduce flare-ups of secondary pests, like spider mites.
Grower Survey to Assess Herbicide Drift Damage in the North Central U.S.
A special project group of the North Central Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Center wants to learn about your concerns and experiences with herbicide drift. The group is surveying growers of fruits, vegetables, and other specialty crops in the upper Midwest.
To truly understand the frequency, severity, and economic impact of herbicide drift on specialty crops, we need to hear from growers: growers who have experienced drift damage, growers who can share their concerns around this issue, and even growers who have not dealt with drift but who grow sensitive crops in drift-prone regions. Survey responses are needed to establish herbicide drift as a serious economic and regulatory concern in Ohio and across our region.
Please complete the survey at go.osu.edu/drift1.
Who should take this survey?
The study is for commercial growers of fruits, vegetables, and other specialty crops in IA, IL, IN, KS, MI, MN, MO, ND, NE, OH, SD, or WI. Even if you have never experienced herbicide damage, we would still like to hear from you if you grow specialty crops in one of these states.
Why is this survey necessary?
Dicamba and 2,4-D drift damage has made headlines in recent years, but no study to-date has attempted to quantify the overall impact drift has on the specialty crop industry. While all states have a way for growers to file a drift complaint, the process and requirements are inconsistent and may involve time and information that a grower does not have. In most states, for instance, the source of the drift must be identified. Research has found that dicamba and 2,4-D both have the potential to travel for miles in specific weather conditions, making source identification difficult.
What good will this survey do?
This study is designed to assess the potential and actual frequency of drift damage, along with the severity and economic impact of such damage. The survey includes questions on grower awareness, experience, actions, and decisions related to herbicide drift and drift-risk management. The responses will help establish needs for research on drift mechanisms, prevention, and remediation; and/or the need to review current policy and reporting requirements.
How long will it take?
The survey takes 5-20 minutes to complete, depending on your experience with drift damage.
How will this data be shared?
Summarized survey data will be shared broadly with regulatory agencies, university educators and researchers, agricultural policy makers, grower support organizations, and the general public using news articles, report summaries, and peer-reviewed journal articles. While this study is administered by The Ohio State University, it was planned in partnership with industry experts across the region who will assist with sharing results. Participants may also request a copy of the study summary.
How will my data be used and protected?
Your privacy is important. No individual survey data will be released or shared beyond the limited group of project staff. The survey questions and procedures have been reviewed by the institutional review board at The Ohio State University and are designed to protect your data and identity. Additional details on privacy and confidentiality are provided at the beginning of the survey.
How can I learn more?
The North Central IPM Center’s special project group created a series of fact sheets on herbicide drift especially for specialty crop growers. The series includes: Overview of Dicamba and 2,4-D Drift Issues, Frequently Asked Questions, Preparing for Drift Damage, and Responding to Drift Damage. Fact sheets and more information about our special project group and study are available at go.osu.edu/ipm-drift.
This study is facilitated by The Ohio State University and is funded by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture through agreement 2018-70006-28884.This study is being conducted in cooperation with regional universities and non-profit grower organizations, including Ohio State Extension.
By: Melanie Lewis Ivey, Assistant Professor, Extension Fruit Pathologist, Department of Plant Pathology
You probably noticed that in 2020 we did not publish an updated Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide (although updates were added to the on-line version). This was because the Midwest Fruit IPM Working Group spent 2020 working on a new format for the guide. The new format is driven by a database and will allow the group to develop a mobile-friendly version of the guide. The printed copy of the guide will continue to be revised every other year, with critical updates/corrections made in real-time to the on-line version of the guide.
For the 2021-2022 publication changes were made to the apple and grape sections only. The new format provides users with same information as previous guides but is more concise and in our opinion easier to understand. Over the next two years we will transition the other crops in the guide to this format.
The grape and apple sections now include charts displaying pest emergence by stage and tables that incorporate product efficacy, REI, and PHI into the spray charts. The new charts (Figure 1) allow users to make side by side comparisons of products for efficacy and target pests throughout the crop season! Instructions on how to make the most of the new charts are also included.
Figure 1. Example of the new chart format in the Midwest Fruit Pest management Guide that allow users to make side by side comparisons of products for efficacy and target pests. Table layout and database development was supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Crop Protection and Pest Management Program through the North Central IPM Center (2018-70006-28883).
We welcome your comments, criticisms and suggestions on the newly formatted apple and grape sections. A short on-line survey has been set up to collect your feedback. Even if you don't grow apples or grapes, we appreciate your feedback to improve the new layout design and its usefulness and effectiveness. The new layout for apple and grape will be applied to the remaining crops in the 2022 guide.
You can access the survey by scanning the QR Code below or you can click here. If you don’t have access to the internet and want to give us your feedback you can call an OSU Extension Specialist or your county Extension office. We will record and submit your feedback.
As with all pesticide spray guides, the recommendations for product usage (i.e., rate, PHI, REI, number of applications) are based on information provided in the product label. Remember, the label is the law!
How to get a copy of the 2021-2022 Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide?
Download for free. To download a free digital copy of the 2021-2022 guide, click here (go.osu.edu/2021fruitpestguide)
Purchase from the Purdue Website. A print copy can be purchased directly from Purdue University at a cost of $15 (plus shipping) per copy.
Purchase from OSU. Print copies can be purchased directly from OSU at a cost of $15 per copy. There is no charge for shipping. Due to the state mandated COVID-19 restrictions in-person pick-ups are not permitted at this time.
You can request a print copy of the guide by contacting your county OSU Extension office or Dr. Melanie Lewis Ivey (email@example.com; 330-263-3849). Cheques should be made out to "The Ohio State University" and mailed to Melanie Ivey, Department of Plant Pathology, 1680 Madison Avenue, Wooster, OH 44691. Please do not send cash through the mail.
By: Imed Dami and Diane Kinney, Horticulture & Crop Science, The Ohio State University
This article summarizes the 2020 dormant and growing seasons and the impact of weather on grape varieties grown on the research vineyard at the OSU-OARDC in Wooster, Ohio.
2020 was a very different year from its very beginning. The first quarter of the year was unusually warm with mean January temperatures in the 30s. At our research vineyard, the lowest recorded winter temperature was 3.7 °F, which occurred on February 15th. However, the temperature trend was reversed during the second quarter, with both April and most of May having cooler temperatures than normal. A statewide frost event occurred the week of April 12th; temperatures dropped to 24.6 °F in Wooster on April 16th. We were fortunate to receive little injury as we had no budbreak at this time, but another drop in temperature to 29 °F on May 9th caused small amounts of injury to some primary shoots. June temperatures leveled out, but July temperatures were above normal and over 90 °F daytime maximum temperatures for 8 days. During the ripening period of August through October, temperatures were very moderate and on track with the long-term average. The killing frost occurred on November 13th. Both months of November and December followed the 2019 trend of being warmer than normal by 3-4 6 °F.
The 2020 precipitation changed drastically from the previous two seasons. The 2020 cumulative precipitation was only 34.24” (2.66” over the long term) vs. the very wet 2018 (44.5”) and 2019 (44.1”). Although we started off gaining over 8.9” by the end of March, July was very dry (more than 2” below the long-term average). Precipitation during ripening was a bit over normal but not excessive. Discounting rainfall from late winter/early spring, the season ended with below-normal precipitation.
2020 Spring freeze injury: We were fortunate to escape the winter months without winter injury. Thanks to a cool April, which slowed down budbreak, the April 16th freeze did not affect us in Wooster since grapevines had not broken bud at that time. After the May 9th temperature drop, we did observe a small amount of freeze damage to the earliest budbreak varieties, but not much due to the late bud break. The cool weather actually may have helped us during the COVID-19 restrictions and later than normal pruning practices.
Diseases and insects: For the most part, fruit remained clean throughout the growing and ripening season. There was some concern for berry shrivel during the drought months of July and early August but that was quickly remedied with ample rain following hurricane Laura. Timing harvest with small amounts of rain occurring resulted in sour rot in some susceptible varieties. We also observed significant bee and bird pressure in early September that likely contributed to sour rot development. As always, the Japanese beetles made their presence known but only small amounts of defoliation occurred when coupled with timely insecticide sprays in the vineyard.
Fruit quality: Our harvest season came fast and furious between the dates of September 1st and October 7th. Overall, yields were low for two reasons: newly established vines were still recovering from the winter injury in 2019; and the negative impact of the spring frost in May 2020. As shown in the table and figures below, sugars were lower and acids were higher than in previous years. This is likely related to the lower mean temperatures and GDDs than those in 2018 and 2019 during ripening. Nevertheless, based on tasting of berry juice at harvest, fruit flavors developed nicely and were characteristic of most red and white varieties.
2020 Harvest fruit composition of selected grape varieties at the Wooster research vineyard:
By: Maria Smith, HCS-OSU
In our last post, we announced the return of GeoVine, a GIS-based vineyard site assessment tool that is currently maintined by the Virginia Tech Center for Geospaitial Information Technology. This tool is supported for users in Virginia, Maryland, and now Ohio. The webinar on December 15 was recorded and can be viewed here. If, after watching the video and exploring the tool, you still have questions or suggestions for additional parameter estimates, please send your comments to firstname.lastname@example.org. The following write-up will provide my re-cap and experiences using the tool, benefits, and caveats to use.
Temporary site access for Ohio stakeholders: https://cgit04.cc.vt.edu:2002/vineyards/
So, let's get started...
What is GeoVine?:
GeoVine is a tool that aggregates publicly available data provided from regional weather stations, USDA soil surveys, and other databases to provide a broad overview of site suitablity for vineyard plantings. In essence, GeoVine simplifies the task of investigating your site's characteristics. It can provide valuable insights into climatic suitability for grape varieties and highlight factors that may impede the success of a new vineyard.
While GeoVine gives a good generalization of site suitability, it does not provide all site-specific information or recommendations that would be needed for properly preparing a site, such as soil analyses for fertilization/pH amendments and tile drainage recommendations. It is also limited in its ability to determine variety compatibility for your site. You are encouraged to consult with us, your County Extension, and County NRCS services for further details into your site and variety selection.
How to use Geovine?:
Loading the site brings you to this main page. The tool can be used without registering, however, registering an account enables editing of site boundaries and saving of all site vineyard reports.
Fig 1. GeoVine home page. Registration, login, and management of site reports can be found at the top in the red menu bar.
Developing a new vineyard report:
To obtain a new vineyard report, select “Vineyard Manager” in the top menu and click “New Vineyard” from the drop-down list. This page then shows you all current regions where GeoVine is available.
Fig 2. “Create a New Vineyard” page under “Vineyard Management”
Entering your site name or clicking on the state of interest allows you to locate your vineyard either through scrolling or (more easily), entering your address information in the top right corner of the page. Note: the view of the map itself can be changed to show satellite view, streets/roads, and current AVAs by changing the “Basemaps” and “Layers” that are shown.
Fig. 3 Locating your site on the map.
Drawing the boundary
Once you have found your site of interest on the map, you can select out the parcel for which you wish to develop a report by using the “draw new boundary” tool on the left side-menu. This boundary tool allows you to select any area that is a closed polygon, with a single mouse click indicating a new directional change, and a double-click (or click back on the first blue dot) to close the boundary. This boundary can then be edited or deleted if you wish to select a different area or modify the existing area. Note: You can only generate one report per boundary area. Other areas of interest within your sites will require you to create another “new vineyard”.
Fig 4. An example of a closed boundary created using the “draw boundary” tool.
Once you have clicked “done”, you can then generate a report for that area. According to Peter Sforza at CGIT-VT, this can take several minutes depending on the queue for their server use. In my experience, this is usually under 5 minutes, so please be patient with the spinning red ring!
GeoVine features the ability to provide daily forecasts for your site based on the closest regional weather station. This feature is automatically enabled but can be easily be turned off depending on your needs.
Understanding the report
Vineyard site reports contain approximately 18 pages worth of data, data sources, and convenient definitions so that you can interpret your own results. Again, the key to using this resource is to keep in mind that GeoVine output is only as good as the data sources that feed it. While GeoVine provides a very reasonable guide to base decisions, you are the ultimate final say in your site selection, variety selection, and planting preparation. Make sure you are using all of the available resources and references to you before finalizing your decisions.
Fig 5. Example cover page for Vineyard Report output
OK, so let’s review some of the major items to consider when interpreting the output from Geovine, starting from page 1.
- The site selection area is “planar”. Therefore, it does not represent topographical contributions to area. Use an accurate on-site survey for the proposed planting area. You will NOT be estimating correctly using the planar area on the page
- CEC, Bulk Density, organic matter, and pH are estimates from past soil surveys. Depending on previous land use and management, these values may differ. It is always recommended to obtain new soil analyses prior to planting and once every 3 years after planting to maintain your soil conditions for vine health.
- The climate data reflect averages dating back to 1980. Therefore, it will not account for weather extremes that have happened prior to 1980. It is also not site-specific microclimate conditions, which would require an onsite weather station. That means the climate data would not capture the propensity for some issues such as winter cold injury and spring frost, which are very dependent on the topography of your site (this info is included in the report, though!).
- The variety suitability list provided is not exhaustive and does not consider sensitivity to winter extremes (extremes and frequency of them are not provided in the report). The probability for events down to 14 °F are reported but remember that midwinter bud injury does not generally occur until temps < 0 °F in Ohio for the most sensitive Vinifera. Also, the variety list does not take into account your risk tolerance for seasonal variability. That means, in general, some varieties in the report may appear to not attain optimal maturity based on season length in an “average” year for your site, but if you are willing to accept that risk for the vintages that do and have a plan in the winery to deal with suboptimal fruit maturity, then that is your prerogative.
- Slope and land suitability: “Unsuitable” does not necessarily mean unsuitable – less desirable was considered the better term. However, > 15% grade should generally be avoided for planting just from a practicality standpoint.
That said, GeoVine is a very useful tool in determining GENERAL site and variety suitability. I have had a lot of fun playing around with it over the past week or so and have found it informative when considering issues that a grower may encounter with a potential site. Whether you are planting new acreage or are curious about your current site, we encourage you to take the time to thoroughly explore the tool. If you have any questions regarding your output, please do not hesitate to contact us
Thanks to the support of the Ohio Grape Industries Committee (OGIC), we are excited to announce the return of Geovine, an online tool from Virginia Tech that assists growers in evaluating vineyard site suitability. A webinar training on how to use the tool will be provided by the Center for Geospatial Information Technology at VT on December 15 from 10am to 11:30am EST. The registration details and link can be found below in addition to the "events" tab of the Buckeye Appellation website.
Topic: Ohio Geovine Training
Time: Dec 15, 2020 10:00am - 11:30am (Eastern Time)
Register in advance for this meeting, and provide any prior questions regarding GeoVine in the registration form:
After registering, you will receive a confirmation email containing information about joining the meeting.
Beginning in mid-December 2020, through funding provided by the Ohio Grape Industries Committee, the GeoVine application (https://www.geovine.org/) will be available for the State of Ohio to support vineyard site evaluation for soil, climate and topographic factors from various data sources. The Center for Geospatial Information Technology at Virginia Tech (https://www.cgit.vt.edu) will provide a live training and Q&A for Ohio stakeholders on Dec 15, 2020 10:00 AM - 11:30 AM (Eastern). Tutorial videos and example reports are currently available on the website for exploration prior to the training session. A recording of the training will be made available following the meeting.
By: Maria Smith, HCS-OSU
Yesterday, the Ohio Department of Agriculture released a press statement regarding the first population of the invasive Spotted Lanternfly (SLF; Lycorma delicatula) found in Mingo Junction along the Ohio River. Please view the statement below along with the following information for continued public monitoring for this insect over the winter months.
If you suspect a sighting of SLF in Ohio, file a report immediately with ODA at https://agri.ohio.gov/wps/portal/gov/oda/divisions/plant-health/invasive-pests/slf or by calling the ODA Plant Pest Control line at 614-728-6400. The link to high-resolution photos for media use can be found here.
Monitoring SLF into the fall and winter
Our goal is to delay SLF establishment within Ohio and minimize population growth. We can do this with public help in monitoring and reporting any suspected sightings of this insect currently in its adult form and throughout the winter months by being on the lookout for egg masses. It is important to be also be vigilant for any hitchhikers if you are planning to visit or have visitors/materials that have traveled from known regions with established SLF populations. A current map of SLF distribution may be found at https://nysipm.cornell.edu/environment/invasive-species-exotic-pests/spotted-lanternfly/.
To identify SLF, it's crucial to understand how it appears at various stages of its lifecycle. SLF exhibits only one life cycle per year, with adults that lay eggs beginning in the late summer through fall seasons. Adult SLF are approximately 1 to 1.5" in length with wings closed and 1.5 to 2" in length with wings open. They are known for their distinct coloring and patters (Image 1). During this time, live adults may be found feeding on a range of host plants, although their most preferred host is tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima; Image 2). At the end of the female lifecycle, SLF lay gray, putty-like egg masses on trees or other hard surfaces such as grills, lawn furniture, trailers, etc. (Image 3). These egg masses may contain between 30 to 50 eggs which will hatch during the spring months. For additional details on identifying all life stages, please visit the OSU Extension SLF Factsheet at https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/anr-83.
Image 1. Adult SLF wing open (top) and wings closed (bottom). Photos are sourced from the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (www.bugwood.org) and published in ANR-83 at https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/anr-83.
Image 2. Leaves and seeds of tree-of-heaven, and invasive and weedy tree species from SE Asia. Image source and descriptions can be found at https://bygl.osu.edu/node/1346
Image 3: SLF egg mass example. Photo source: https://news.psu.edu/story/613936/2020/04/02/impact/extension-educators-offer-tips-managing-spring-spotted-lanternfly-egg
Each year grape growers report indicidence of herbicide drift injury in Ohio vineyards. Working together with you and DriftSense, we hope to eliminate one of the root causes of drift injury - bad herbicide application timing. The following is a message from Dr. Doug Doohan, Weed Specialist with OSU Horticulture and Crop Science, describing the goals of DriftSense. If you are interested in collaborating with us on this promising technology, please reach out to Dr. Doohan at email@example.com.
Over the past month I (we) have met on 4 occasions with colleagues from Israel who own and manage a company called DriftSense (https://www.drift-sense.com). DriftSense is a startup firm that is dedicated to helping growers and pesticide applicators reduce the risk of herbicide drift from row-crop fields to vineyards and orchards. They are developing a real-time tool that will forecast time periods when it is safe or unsafe apply herbicides, from the drift-management point of view. We think this technology will be of interest to commercial pesticide applicators and to owners/ managers of high value crops like grape. For you as a vineyard owner and operator the tool, when fully developed, will help you to communicate in real-time with adjacent property owners and applicators, providing them with a science-based risk assessment ie when it is safe or unsafe to spray herbicides. It should also be useful in conducting investigations of drift of uncertain origin and timing.
After listening carefully to their background information, the science and the technology behind DriftSense, I have agreed to reach out to several of my vineyard associates about participating in a validation exercise of their technology. Specifically I am reaching out to you because I know that you have been impacted from herbicide drift from a neighbor’s field. If you agreed to work with DriftSense, at no cost to you and no financial benefit to me or Ohio State University, their team would contact you and garner a few key pieces of information from you; your geographic location, the date and time (if known) of the drift event, and the herbicide involved. With these few pieces of information they will model the 48-72 hour time-periods before and after the drift event(s) you experienced. The outcome of the procedure will be a clear representation of how chemical, application technology, weather conditions, and local geography played into the drift you experienced and it will help DriftSense fine-tune their models and prepare to seek additional startup funding.
By: Maria Smith, HCS-OSU
Precipitation: Much of August has followed July, with warm, dry conditions. It has only been in the past couple of weeks that we have begun seeing a reprieve from this pattern (Fig. 1). Notably, southern Ohio has had several large storms come through, alleviating previous drought conditions (Fig. 2). In contrast, northwestern and portions of central Ohio have continued remaining dry.
Here in Wooster, we had a combined total of 4.25” of rain throughout August across 8 days of measurable precipitation. Approximately 30% of that accumulated total came from a single 1.31” event on August 28 from the remnants of hurricane Laura (www.newa.cornell.edu). Despite that event, Wooster and much of northern Ohio were still at or below the 30-year average precipitation for the month (Fig. 1).
Figure 1. Accumulated precipitation during the past 30 days (left) and accumulated precipitation departure from the 30-year average (right). Figures retrieved from https://climate.osu.edu/climate-tools/climate-maps-ohio.
Figure 2. Ohio drought monitor for 1 Sep 2020. Figure retrieved from https://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/CurrentMap/StateDroughtMonitor.aspx?OH.
Temperature: A clear delineation between eastern and western Ohio could be made for temperature trends (Fig. 3). All but the northeast corner of northern Ohio continued July’s trend of above long-term average temperatures by 1-3 °F, while southern and western Ohio tended to be closer to average temperatures.
Figure 3. Maximum, minimum, and average temperatures during the past 30 days (top), and their respective departures from the 30-year average (bottom). Figures retrieved from https://climate.osu.edu/climate-tools/climate-maps-ohio.
In the vineyard:
Harvest has begun for several of the early-season varieties over the past couple of weeks. While we were grateful to get the rain to help stave off any potential berry shrivel from the summer drought, awaiting anymore right now seems to walk a fine line between “okay, this is fine” and “harvest that fruit now”.
The ability to wait out rain events should largely be determined around your fruit’s proximity to maturity, overall fruit quality (i.e., are the berries healthy and intact or are you noticing wounding, splitting, rot, or other issues that significant rain would worsen?), and the size of the anticipated rain event. Thankfully, the season has been generous so far in limiting disease pressure and allowing us to get to this point with overall healthy fruit. If you are new to tracking your fruit maturity and deciding your harvest date, please see our resources from Dr. Imed Dami and Diane Kinney: Fruit maturity factsheet and 2020 Fruit maturity updates - OARDC Wooster.
One concern for this fall that has recently caught my attention is bird pressure. Afterall, what would 2020 be without a real-life version of Alfred Hitchcock’s The Birds, right? Several growers have reported much higher than normal bird pressure and damage over the past couple of weeks. Indeed, I observed this myself during our first harvest with ‘Marquette’ last week where robins were seen trapping themselves up and under the fastened bird netting. The concern, of course, is both in yield loss and in creating wound sites for sour rot and Botrytis development. If you are in search of options for bird control, check out this comprehensive factsheet from UNH: https://extension.unh.edu/resources/files/Resource001797_Rep2514.pdf. In general, we advocate netting as the most traditional, reliable control method. However, we recognize that different operations have different limitations, and there are various methods on the market that are worth exploring.
Lastly, if you are planning for new vineyard plantings, now through October is an ideal time to get underway with vineyard site preparation. This includes tile installation, soil decompaction, plowing, weed control, pH and some nutrient amendments, and sowing ground cover. The soil is still very warm from the summer heat, but the cooling days should bring about higher soil moisture, which makes for easier cultivation and sod establishment.